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TCRT has been on continuous publication since 2002. It is covered currently by all the major data systems such as Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Thomson's ISI and SCI and Scopus.

The 2012 Impact factor for TCRT is 1.943

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TCRT seeks original articles
Cancer Watch
Breast Imaging Techniques

Imaging Tumor Vascularization for Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer (607-623)

Breast cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in western women. Current screening and diagnostic imaging modalities, like x-ray mammography and ultrasonography, focus on morphological changes of breast tissue. However, these techniques still miss some cancers and often falsely detect cancer. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting the disease can probably be improved by focusing on the consequences of tumor angiogenesis: the increased microvessel density with altered vascular characteristics. In this review, various techniques for imaging breast tumor vasculature are discussed. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is the most-used imaging modality in this field. It has a proven high sensitivity, but a low specificity and cannot be applied in all women. Moreover, it has problems with detecting ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). On the contrary, contrast enhanced digital mammography can detect DCIS, but requires the use of ionizing radiation. Contrast enhanced ultrasound provides real-time information about true intravascular blood volume and flow. However, this technique still has difficulties with discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Moreover, these three imaging modalities all require the injection of contrast agents. Two relatively new techniques that do not use external contrast agents are diffuse optical imaging and photoacoustic imaging. Both visualize the increased concentration of hemoglobin in malignant tissue and thereby provide a high intrinsic contrast.

Key words: Breast cancer; Imaging; Vasculature; Angiogenesis; MRI; Mammography; Ultrasonography; Optical imaging; Photoacoustic imaging.

This article can be cited as:
Heijblom, M., Klaase, M., van den Engh, F. M., van Leeuwen, T. G., Steenbergen, W., Manohar, S. Imaging Tumor Vascularization for Detection and Diagnosis of Breast CancerTechnol Cancer Res Treat. 10, 607-623 (2011). DOI: 10.7785/tcrt.2012.500227


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Received: February 11, 2011; Revised: June 8, 2011; Accepted: June 13, 2011

TCRT December 2011

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Volume 10
No.6 (505-634)
December 2011
ISSN 1533-0338

DOI: 10.7785/tcrt.2012.500227

M. Heijblom, MSc1,2
J. M. Klaase, MD, PhD2
F. M. van den Engh, MD2
T. G. van Leeuwen, MSc, PhD1,3
W. Steenbergen, lr, PhD1
S. Manohar, MSc Engg, PhD1*

1Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, the Netherlands
2Center for Breast Care, Medisch Spectrum Twente Hospital, P.O. Box 50000, 7500 KA Enschede, the Netherlands
3Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 2270, 1100 DE Amsterdam, the Netherlands

*Corresponding author:
S. Manohar, PhD
Phone: +31 534893164
E-mail: s.manohar@utwente.nl